Why Does Mantle Convection Occur?

What would happen if Earth’s convection currents in Earth’s mantle slowed down?

Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle are caused by hot material rising upwards, cooling, then dropping back toward the core.

If the interior of the Earth were to cool enough for convection currents to stop, then the motion of the plates would cease, and the Earth would become geologically dead..

What causes the mantle to flow?

The mantle flows because of convection currents that are caused by very hot material in the mantle rising, cooling, and then sinking. This circular pattern causes the mantle to flow.

How is heat transferred by radiation?

Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object. … The energy lost is emitted as light or electromagnetic radiation. Energy that is absorbed by an atom causes its electrons to “jump” up to higher energy levels. All objects absorb and emit radiation.

What is a destructive force?

Definitions. Destructive Force- the process by which rock is broken down, such as erosion and weathering either through the violent actions of volcanoes and earthquakes or by the steady flow of a river.

How fast do convection currents in the mantle move?

A transform boundary is like a tear in the Earth’s crust. These plates move very slowly across the surface of the Earth as though they were on a conveyor belt. The convection currents in the much hotter mantle continually move the plates about 1/2 to 4 inches per year.

Why is there convection in the mantle?

Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth’s solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior to the planet’s surface. … This hot added material cools down by conduction and convection of heat.

What is the cause of convection?

Convection, process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water. Natural convection results from the tendency of most fluids to expand when heated—i.e., to become less dense and to rise as a result of the increased buoyancy.

What may happen if there were no convection currents in the mantle?

Answer 1: If all convection currents on Earth stopped that would be a natural disaster. The amount of heat which the sun radiates at us sets the temperature of the Earth’s surface. … So if convection completely stopped the high and low temperatures would force people and animals to move away from the poles and equator.

What is special about the lithosphere?

The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the Earth. The lithosphere includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust, the outermost layers of Earth’s structure. … Ductility measures a solid material’s ability to deform or stretch under stress. The lithosphere is far less ductile than the asthenosphere.

What are 4 examples of convection?

13 Examples Of Convection In Everyday LifeBreeze. The formation of sea and land breeze form the classic examples of convection. … Boiling Water. Convection comes into play while boiling water. … Blood Circulation in Warm-Blooded Mammals. … Air-Conditioner. … Radiator. … Refrigerator. … Hot Air Popper. … Hot Air Balloon.More items…

In which layer does mantle convection occur?

Lithosphere. Mantle convection occurs in the: Asthenosphere.

What happens during mantle convection?

Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth’s solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior to the planet’s surface. … This subducted material sinks through the Earth’s interior.

What happens when convection currents occur?

convection currents occur when a heated fluid expands, becoming less dense, and rises. The fluid then cools and contracts, becoming more dense, and sinks.

Why is convection current important?

Convection currents play a role in the circulation of fluids. Convection currents are the result of differential heating. Lighter (less dense), warm material rises while heavier (more dense) cool material sinks. … Convection also plays a role in the movement of deep ocean waters and contributes to oceanic currents.

What is destructive force caused by the convection in the mantle?

Answer: convergent margins. Explanation: Mantle convection causes the phenomenon of plate tectonics on the earth surface. From plate tectonics, we understand that the earth surface is broken into several giant slabs made up of the crust and upper part of the mantle.

What is the source of heat in the mantle?

The heat driving mantle convection has three sources. “Primordial” heat (left over from the accretion and differentiation that led to the formation of Earth’s core) contributes 20 to 50% of the heat. Heating due to the decay of radioactive isotopes (mainly potassium, thorium, and uranium) contributes 50 to 80%.

What temperatures are associated with mantle convection?

The temperature of the mantle varies greatly, from 1000° Celsius (1832° Fahrenheit) near its boundary with the crust, to 3700° Celsius (6692° Fahrenheit) near its boundary with the core. In the mantle, heat and pressure generally increase with depth. The geothermal gradient is a measurement of this increase.